Belt Conveyor Basics


A belt conveyor is a machine with a moving belt. A belt conveyor is constructed of the following parts.

Conveyor beds come in many sizes and create a bed for the conveyor.

Pulleys go on each end of the conveyor bed. The pulleys are the same width as the bed, each pulley has a steel shaft through it. The shaft turns on a bearing and the pulley turns with the shaft.

Bearings use small steel balls to keep the pulley shaft and the conveyor bed from rubbing together.

Drive Pulley
The drive pulley is larger because it does the “work”. The drive pulley driven by a motor. A sprocket is put ont he drive pulley shaft.

A sprocket is a metal wheel with teeth on the outside.

How the drive pulley is “driven”
A chain is put around the drive pulley and motor sprocket. The chain moves when the motor is started and the chain turns the drive pulley. Because the motor turns very fast (1750 times per minute) a speed reducer must be used. The speed reducer is put between the motor and the drive pulley. The motor is connected to the reducer with a V-Belt or C-face coupling. The reducer is connected tot eh drive pulley with a chain. All of this so the drive pulley turns slower.

All of these parts make up the Conveyor Drive. These parts are put together to take up as little space as possible so they can fit underneath the conveyor bed.

Tail Pulley
The tail pulley, like it’s name implies is located at the tail end of the conveyor. It simply turns freely.  A belt goes around both pulleys.

Return Idlers
Return idlers simply keep the belt from hanging down below the conveyor.

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